Siden er sidst redeigeret d. 28/1 - 2019

foto nedenfor: The Official CTBTO Photostream, link til billede


Der er heldigvis modstandere af USAs agresssive atomvåben politik i USA, der er dog ikke flertal i begge kamre og man må forvente at Trump nedlægger veto med et lovforslag om at USA ikke må være de første til at bruge atomvåben.

Top Democrats introduce bill to prevent U.S. from striking first with nuclear weapons

the Washington Post d. 30/1 - 2019

Legislation introduced by Democratic lawmakers in the House and Senate on Wednesday would bar the United States from using a nuclear weapon unless attacked with one first, demonstrating growing momentum for anti-nuclear sentiments on the left in the lead-up to the 2020 presidential election.

Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.), a 2020 presidential contender, and Rep. Adam Smith (D-Wash.), the chairman of the House Armed Services Committee, introduced the No First Use Act in their respective chambers to codify in law what they said “most Americans already believe — that the United States should never initiate a nuclear war.”

The text of the bill is simple, saying only that “it is the policy of the United States not to use nuclear weapons first.” But while the measure has support among many Democrats and could pass through the House, it probably would not get enough Republican backing to win approval in the Senate.

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Production of W76-2 warhead in US increases risk of nuclear conflict, warns Lavrov

Tass d. 30/1 - 2019

Russia’s proposal to resume strategic stability dialogue with the US remains on the table, the top diplomat stressed

MOSCOW, January 30. /TASS/. Production of the W76-2 warhead in the United States lowers the threshold of using nuclear weapons and increases the risk of a nuclear conflict, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov told a news conference in Moscow on Wednesday.

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USA ønsker at kunne bruge "små" atomvåben i krig.

US nuclear weapons: first low-yield warheads roll off the production line

The Guardian d. 28/1 - 2019

New type of weapon, ordered by Trump’s nuclear posture review, could make conflict more likely, say experts...

...The new weapon, the W76-2, is a modification of the existing Trident warhead. Stephen Young, a senior Washington representative of the Union of Concerned Scientists, said its yield had most likely been cut by taking away one stage from the original two-stage, W76 thermonuclear device.

“As best we can tell, the only requirement is to replace the existing secondary, or second stage, with a dummy version, which is what they do every time they test fly a missile,” Young said, adding that the amount of tritium, a hydrogen isotope, may also be adjusted. The result would be to reduce its explosive power from 100 kilotons of TNT, to about five – approximately a third of the force of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima...

...Melissa Hanham of the One Earth Future foundation pointed out that adversaries would have no way of knowing if a full-force Trident was being fired at them, or its low-yield cousin.
The latest major Trump resignations and firings
Read more

“Hey all you nuclear powers out there. We’re just going to trust that you recognize this is “just a little nuclear weapon” and won’t retaliate with all you’ve got,” Hanham wrote in a tweet. “Remember! The US only intends to nuke you “a little bit.””...

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Hjort udelukker ikke atomvåben mod Rusland

fra DR kl. 6:24 torsdag d. 14/2 - 2019

USA har udelukket atomvåben. Natos øverste chef har udelukket atomvåben.

Men den danske forsvarsminister, Claus Hjort Frederiksen (V) vil ikke på forhånd fjerne dette kort fra bordet, når Natos medlemslande drøfter et svar på en ny trussel fra Rusland.

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“At a time when global anxieties about nuclear weapons are higher than at any time since the Cold War, measures for disarmament and arms control are more vital than ever,” Thomas Markram, Deputy High Representative for Disarmament Affairs, told the opening of the 2018 session of the UN Disarmament Commission, held in New York.

UN news d. 2/4 - 2018


Dismantling the Doomsday Machines by
Posted on January 18, 2019

Klip fra artiklen.

om atomvinter:

...Nuclear Winter and the Destruction of Humanity. But the damage does not stop there. This is the surprise that the Pentagon did not understand at the time. The ash from the fires of burning cities would be cast up into the stratosphere so high that it would not be rained out. There it would remain for at least a decade, blocking enough sunlight that no crops would grow for ten years. That is sufficient to cause total starvation and wipe out the entire human race with only a handful at most able to survive. This is Nuclear Winter. It is eerily reminiscent of Kubrick’s Doomsday Machine which resulted in a cloud of radioactivity circling the earth and wiping out all life. Nuclear Winter was first understood in the 1980s, but at that time careful assessment of the existing computer models seemed to indicate that it was not likely and so many "stopped worrying." Now with the interest in Global Warming, new and better computer models have been developed. When the results of a nuclear first strike are put into these models, Nuclear Winter again makes its appearance as Brian Toon, Alan Robock and others have shown. The TED talks of Toon and of Robock describing their findings are worth watching; they are brief and well-illustrated. We are confronted with a genocide of all or nearly all humanity, an "Omnicide."

The launch of the 1600 "deployed" warheads of either the US or Russia is sufficient to give us nuclear winter. So we in the US have put in place a weapon system on hair trigger alert commanded by we know not whom which can kill virtually all Americans – along with most everyone else on the planet. We have on hair trigger alert a weapon which is in fact suicidal. Use the weapon and we lose our very existence. We should also be clear that even if we prescind from the effects of nuclear winter, the nuclear attacks would be concentrated on Russia and the US. So most of us would be consumed. Thus MAD (Mutual Assured Destruction) is replaced with SAD (Self-Assured Destruction)....

Om hvordan man kan fjerne "første slags muligheden"

....Abandoning First Strike Policy and Capacity. Dismantling the Doomsday Machine with its Hair Trigger Alert and Delegation does mean abandoning a First Strike policy and capacity. And right now, only two countries have such First Strike capacity and only one, the US, refuses to take the right to use it "off the table" even when not under attack. What does the elimination of First Strike Capacity mean in practice; how can it be achieved? This turns out to involve two basic steps for the US.

Dismantling the Minuteman III. First, the land-based ICBMs, the Minuteman III, must be entirely dismantled, not refurbished as is currently being undertaken at enormous cost. These missiles, the land-based part of the Strategic Triad, are highly accurate but fixed in place, "sitting ducks"; they are only good for a First Strike, for they will be destroyed in a successful First Strike by an adversary. Former Secretary of Defense William Perry and James E. Cartwright, formerly head of the Strategic Air Command and Vice Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, have both called for dismantling the Minuteman III. We would thereby also save a lot of money.

Reducing the SLBM Force. The second step in dismantling the First Strike capacity is to reduce the Trident Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) force to the level where it cannot destroy the entire Russian land-based missile force. With these two measures in place the US would no longer have a First Strike Capability, and so Launch on Warning and Delegation upon apparent Decapitation would both be unnecessary. It is that simple.

Of course, the Russians would also need to take similar measures that take into account the specifics of its arsenal. And that is where negotiations, treaties and verification come in. That in turn cannot take place in the current atmosphere of Russiagate and Russophobia, which is why both are existential threats and must be surmounted. We must talk despite our differences, real or perceived.

However, were the US and Russia to abandon their First Strike capacity, a reasonable deterrent could be preserved. Such a deterrent should be far below the threshold for a nuclear winter. When Herbert York, one of the original nuclear war planners and strategists, was asked how many nuclear weapons it would take to guarantee deterrence, he suggested somewhere between one and one hundred, closer to one, perhaps ten. Of course, such a small number demands giving up on a missile defense system which has been a will-o’-the-wisp since the 1950s. But would a leader of any nation, even one equipped with an Anti-Ballistic Missile system, when confronted with 100 nuclear warheads facing him or her, be willing to risk ten getting through and demolishing 10 cities?

But there is a deep problem here. The US at least has not built its nuclear forces with the simple object of deterrence. It has had the policy of being able to strike first and destroy or sufficiently degrade the Russian force so that there would be no retaliation. Ellsberg establishes that definitively based on his own experience in his days as a nuclear war planner. But this is also a will-o’-the-wisp. With Launch on Warning and Delegation both sides would be destroyed. So, this path must be abandoned. However, it is a path that has been trod for a long time. It has acquired many adherents and become embedded in the thinking of our "strategic war planners." It will be hard to abandon this way of thinking which is what will make the simple steps outlined above politically difficult although technically and logistically quite simple. Moreover, in the mind of the public there is no clear distinction between First Strike and simple deterrence. And many favor a nuclear deterrent. So the movement for total abolition of nuclear weapons has a long way to go to reach its destination...

Link til artiklen


'Doomsday Machine' author Daniel Ellsberg says Americans have escaped self-annihilation by luck

PBS NewsHour på Youtube d. 21/12 - 2017

The military analyst turned whistleblower who leaked the Pentagon Papers looks at the existential threat of America’s nuclear capacities in his new memoir, “The Doomsday Machine.” Very little has changed, says author Daniel Ellsberg, when it comes to what he calls the immoral and insane policies regarding nuclear weapons. William Brangham sits down with Ellsberg to discuss the looming danger.

se video


Doomsday Clock 2018, hvor videnskabsfolk fortæller hvor tæt vi er til atomar udslettelse

Independent d. 24/1 - 2018

Mange af verdens mest anerkendte forskere vil være vært for en ceremoni for at annoncere tiden på Doomsday Clock - et udtryk for, hvor meget fare menneskeheden er i.
Klokken er sat til 2 min i kl. 24, den har ikke siden 1953 været sat så tæt på kl. 24.

Link til artiklen


Er tryghed stadig vigtig?

Jyske Vestkysten d. 18/9 2018 kl. 13:56


Er tryghed stadig vigtig? Hvis ja, bliver vi nødt til at forholde os til autonome dræberrobotter/droner. I FN forhandler en række lande og NGO'er, om der skal være et forbud mod autonome dræberrobotter, men det går trægt. Danmark deltager slet ikke i forhandlingerne. Hvis vi ikke får stoppet produktionen af de autonome dræberrobotter/droner, vil det blive alt for let at slå et andet menneske eller en gruppe af mennesker ihjel, uden man kan finde gerningsmanden/gerningsmændene.

Droner, der kan slå et menneske ihjel, behøver ikke at være større end en lille fugl. Disse droner kan flyve i store sværme og kommunikere med hinanden - så det kan være meget vanskeligt at undgå dem. Autonome robotter/droner er udstyret med kunstig intelligens (AI), der tænker langt hurtigere end mennesker. Kunstig intelligens kan selv udvikle sin intelligens. Således har robotter kunnet udvikle et andet sprog til kommunikation, da menneskets sprog var for langsomt.

I krig er hurtige beslutninger noget, man kan vinde en krig med. Derfor er det fristende at overlade krigens beslutninger til superhurtige dræberrobotter, men det vil betyde, at en atomkrig lettere vil kunne starte ved en fejl. Derfor kom og hør vort gadeteater om autonome dræberrobotter på FN's fredsdag den 21. september klokken 17.00 og klokken 17.30 i Heerups Have ved Hotel Britannia i Esbjerg.

Link til artiklen


A collection of the Bulletin’s best writing on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

By John Mecklin | Analysis, Collections, Nuclear Risk, Nuclear Weapons

Bulletin of the Atomc Scientist august 2018

It’s been 73 years since the Bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and, a few days later, on Nagasaki, Japan. That week in August changed the world forever; ever since, the global nuclear arsenal has risen and dropped, but the nuclear threat has not, by any means, dissipated. Here’s a collection of Bulletin articles that provide some ideas and observances to remember and think about as the world navigates, once again, a particularly dangerous period of the Nuclear Age.

Link til artiklerne


Nuclear abolition: Protesters confront Livermore Lab on Hiroshima anniversary

Peoples's World d. 10/8 - 2018

LIVERMORE, Calif.—Hundreds gathered outside the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory here Aug. 6, to mark the 73rd anniversary of the devastating U.S. nuclear bombing of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and to pledge a greatly stepped-up fight to abolish nuclear weapons worldwide.

Peace advocates see global nuclear disarmament as an ever more urgent issue now, in the face of the Trump administration’s Nuclear Posture Review, released last February.

Rally speakers brought the demonstration’s call to action—No Nukes! No Walls! No Wars! No Warming!—to life as they linked today’s urgent struggles and examined decades of historical context.

Keynote speaker Daniel Ellsberg, the whistleblower whose 1971 release of the Pentagon Papers helped speed the end of the Vietnam War, highlighted the concept of “time, time enough, and too late” in relation both to climate change and nuclear apocalypse.

He linked the alarms raised by climate scientists who see looming “tipping points” after which change is impossible, with Martin Luther King Jr.’s April 1967 observation concerning nuclear weapons: “There is such a thing as too late.”

Illustrating his point with accounts of the captain of the Titanic sealing his ship’s doom by ignoring repeated warnings, and the choices which might have averted total nuclear devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Ellsberg said, “The meaning I draw from it is, every minute we have here is precious, everything is at stake, we don’t know if it is too late to keep those trees from dying in a nuclear winter. That means each of us has the opportunity to do what we can to postpone that, avert that, make it less likely forever. And that is worth doing.”

He called on the crowd “to act as if we still have time to change this. We don’t know otherwise; it’s impossible to say it’s too late at any given point.”

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Hiroshimadagen d. 6/8 - 2018

Tale og sang fra den årlige mindehøjtidelighed i Heerups Have i Esbjerg

Se video


Familiekanalen interview med Poul Eck Sørensen om atomvåben d. 5/9 - 2018

se Video - klik her.


Atomkrig i Europa er blevet mere sandsynlig under den nye kolde krig.

Af Poul Eck Sørensen, Esbjerg Fredsbevægelse

Vestkysten d. 20/6 - 2018

De lande, der har atomvåben og NATO-landene, støtter ikke et forbud mod atomvåben, selv om 122 lande i FN d. 7/7 2017 underskrev en historisk traktakt med et forbud mod Atomvåben.

Er vi gode venner med den stærkeste militær magt i verden, er vores sikkerhed garanteret.

Sådan er det ikke længere. USA's militær industrielle kompleks ønsker krige, da det giver øgede indtægter. Våbensalget er steget betragteligt i Mellemøsten. USA er det land i Verden der eksportere flest våben (33% i 2017).

Vi har forpligtiget os til at undgå krige og drab på civile. Krige skaber ikke mere demokrati og bedre livsvilkår. Man kan ikke sige, at Irak er blevet et bedre land at bo i - tværtimod.

Under den gamle kolde krig underskrev USA og Sovjet flere aftaler, der skulle sikre fred i Europa. Nu er det modsat. Der opbygges fjendebilleder på usaglig grundlag, der opsiges aftaler, der bygges baser hele vejen rundt om Rusland. Ruslands militære magt overvurderes stærkt og sidst men ikke mindst, russiske og amerikanske politikker truer INF aftalen. Med INF aftalen blev mellemdistanceraketter i Europa skrottet af Sovjet og USA for at mindske faren for en atomkrig i Europa.

Derfor er det vigtigere end nogen sinde at være med til at støtte op om modstanden mod atomvåben, hvilket du kan gøre i Heerups Have 6. august kl. 20.

Læs artiklen i Vestkysten.


DR forklarer hvorfor USA må have atomvåben, når andre ikke må

Jan Øberg d. 10/6 - 2018

...Læseren får blandt andet at vide at:

1. “Den ganske simple forklaring på, hvorfor USA må have atomvåben, når så mange andre ikke må, er, at de var først.” …. “Det er historiens tilfældighed, der spiller ind”…..og “De (USA og de andre atomstater) var først ude. Derfor blev de til atomvåbenstater, som er anerkendt af det internationale samfund i dag.”

Dvs at USA var først til at udvikle og bruge dem, artiklen indledes med reference til Hiroshima. At have været først til at “smide” – et ord der poppet giver associationer til noget tilfældigt henkastet og ikke til massemord – atomvåben skulle altså i sig selv indebære en slags særlig ret til at have dem i dag i forhold til alle andre lande, der ikke har smidt atomvåben på nogen?

Jeg måtte læse denne af journalisten uden videre accepterede forklaring på USAs særstilling flere gange.

2. Aftalen om Ikke-Spredning af Atomvåben (NPT) fra 1968 tjener et ganske anderledes formål end den i virkeligheden gør: “Kernen i aftalen er accepten af, at nogle har atomvåben, og andre ikke har”…”I den traktat blev grundstenen lagt til en accept af, at nogle må have atomvåben, mens andre ikke må.”

Det er ganske enkelt ikke sandt.

En vidende journalist ville have spurgt eksperten hvad i alverden hun mener med det.

Aftalen gør lige det modsatte – hvad enhver der gider at søge på nettet og f.eks. bruge Wikipedia kan forvisse sig om. Den gør det folkeretsligt bindende at a) lande, der ikke har atomvåben skal afstå fra at anskaffe dem mod at få hjælp med civil atomkraftteknologi; b) de lande, der har atomvåben skal påbegynde forhandlinger, der kan lede frem til atomvåbnenes afskaffelse og ‘generel og fuldstændig nedrustning.’

Aftalens formål er således at der skal skabes en verden, der er atomfri. Den indeholder ikke noget, der kan give anledning til den – horrible – påstand at her lægges grunden til at nogen må have atomvåben og andre ikke.

Kan en medarbejder ved Forsvarsakademiets være så uvidende om Ikkespredningsaftalen?

Har journalisten gjort så lidt research at hun ikke indser at udsagnet er – vel, fake news?

Har de to misforstået hinanden?

Hvem lader dette bedrageri passere på public service, som oplysning til danskerne om atomvåbnene og USAs rolle?...

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Vi er tættere på en atomkrig end nogensinde

Jyske Vestkysten d. 5/2 - 2018 - klik her

Bragt i Arbejderen d. 13/2 - 2018

Jeg kan godt forstå det, hvis du tænker. Det er for langt ude. Men prøv at læse artiklen fra New York Times d. 16/1 – 2018: ”Pentagon Suggests Countering Devastating Cyberattacks With Nuclear Arms.”
Her beskrives hvordan Pentagon, hvis USA bliver udsat for et voldsomt cyberangreb, foreslår, at man må kunne straffe med atomvåben.
Man har ikke beviser på et cyberangreb fra Rusland, men det nævnes så tit, at det efterhånden er blevet en sandhed alligevel.
Tanken om en begrænset atomkrig mod Rusland var jo årsagen til at præsident George W. Bush i 2001 opsagde den såkaldte ABM-traktat fra 1972, traktaten for anti-ballistiske missiler. Herefter har USA placeret anti-missilsystemer rundt om Rusland, da man i USA tror, at man på den måde kan ramme Rusland med atomvåben uden selv at blive ramt af dem. Siden opsigelsen af ABM-traktaten har USA bygget sin atomdoktrin på NUTS, Nuclear Use Theory.
Våbenindustrien og private hærenheder skal tjene penge og de er ligeglade med menneskeliv, blot de kan sælge flest mulige våben og det kræver bestikkelse og krig (kilde f.eks. filmen: The Shadow World, så derfor nedsættes tærsklen for, hvornår en krig / atomkrig kan startes.
Poul Eck Sørensen, formand for Esbjerg Fredsbevægelse.



Nuclear Disarmament Briefing Paper
by John Burroughs, J.D., Ph.D.,
Fellow of The Simons Foundation
February 26 , 2018

Trump’s Nuclear Posture Review: A Call to Nuclear Arms The U.S. Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) released February 2, 2018

views the world as a dangerous, lawless environment, marked by military competition among great powers. As to nuclear disarmament, the most the Trump NPR offers is a grudging general acceptance of arms control measures for purposes of stability and predictability with perfunctory references to the “long - term goal of eliminating nuclear weapons” and to pursuit of “political and security conditions that could enable further nuclear reductions.”

It thus stands in marked contrast to the 2010 review conducted by the Obama administration, which committed the United States to seek the eventual achievement of a world free of nuclear weapons and addressed how to succeed in that endeavor in some detail. Instead, it resembles the 2001 review done under the George W. Bush admi nistration.

Link til ovenstående.

The Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) is a process “to determine what the role of nuclear weapons in U.S. security strategy should be
Nuclear Posture Review se Wikipedia
Link til rapporten.
Link til pdf-filen fra denne side.



Forsvarsministeriet USA - Februar 2018

Læs det amerikanske forsvarsministeriums syn på atomvåben



2018 UN High-Level Conference
on Nuclear Disarmament

The United Nations has decided to hold a High Level Conference on Nuclear Disarmament in 2018 in order to enhance progress toward the achievement of a nuclear weapons convention – a global treaty to prohibit and eliminate nuclear weapons.

Similar UN High Level Conferences held over the past few years have been very successful, including the conference on Sustainable Development (2015) which achieved agreement on 17 Sustainable Development Goals; Climate Change (2015) which achieved theParis Agreement; Refugees and Migrants (2016) which achievedthe New York Declaration and Oceans (2017) which achieved the 14-point Action Plan to Protect our Oceans.

UNFOLD ZERO, in cooperation with the Basel Peace Office, PNND and Abolition 2000, are building civil society, parliamentary and government support for the 2018 UN High Level Conference on Nuclear Disarmament, and to influence the agenda and ensure success.
Ideas proposed for the agenda of the 2018 UN Conference:

Encouraging states to ratify the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons;
Calling on the nuclear-armed States (and allied states) to adopt measures at the conference on nuclear-risk reduction and transparency, including lowering the operational readiness to use nuclear weapons, and adopting no-first-use policies;
Moving the nuclear-armed States to announce, at the conference, an end the modernisation of nuclear weapons, and new agreed cuts in their stockpiles;
Renewing the UN process an establishing a Middle East Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone;
Supporting the establishment of a North East Asian NWFZ.


The Parliamentary Assembly of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe – which includes the parliaments of France, Russia, UK, USA, all NATO countries and other European Countries – has called ‘on all participating OSCE States to participate in the 2018 UN international conference on nuclear disarmament at the highest level, to include parliamentarians in their delegations to the conference and to pursue the adoption of nuclear risk reduction, transparency and disarmament measures at the conference.’ See OSCE Parliamentary Assembly calls for nuclear weapons stand-down.

A joint cross-party letter on Dialogue, detente and nuclear disarmament, sent from European parliamentarians to NATO and the OSCE leaders on July 14, 2017, includes a call on NATO and OSCE to support the 2018 UN High Level Conference.


UN Resolution 71/71 (2016), re-affirming the decision to hold the UN High Level Conference on Nuclear Disarmament;
UNFOLD ZERO working paper on the NPT and the 2018 UN High Level Conference
Food for thought paper on the NPT, Ban Treaty and the 2018 UNHLC


Consultation meetings on the UN HLC, January – March 2017
New York
Washington DC
Side-event at the 2017 NPT Prep Com in Vienna
The Ban Treaty and the 2018 UN High Level Conference, side-event on June 30, 2017, at the UN during the ban treaty negotiations

Join the Abolition 2000 working group:

Abolition 2000, the global network to eliminate nuclear weapons, has established a Working group on the 2018 UN High Level Conference. To join the working group contact


Nej til FN-forbud

Danmark er parat til at bruge atomvåben

Danmarks stol ved FN-forhandlingerne om et forbud mod atomvåben står tom. Regeringen vil ikke sende en repræsentant. Danmark har nemlig – sammen med NATO-landene – sagt nej til at forbyde atomvåben.

Arbejderen d. 17/5 - 2017

...Det stod klart, da udenrigsminister Anders Samuelsen på et samråd i Udenrigsudvalget for nylig skulle forklare, hvorfor Danmark ikke bakker op om FN's forhandlinger om et forbud mod atomvåben, som startede op i marts.

– Danmark ønsker at være i kernen af NATO i spørgsmålet om et forbud mod atomvåben. Alliancesolidariteten er vigtig for den danske regering. Derfor kan Danmark ikke støtte en forbudstraktat mod atomvåben. Vi er en del af en gruppe lande, der har atomvåben som en mulighed. Det ville være uheldigt, hvis det kun er fjenden, der har atomvåben, lød begrundelsen fra udenrigsministeren...ele artiklen

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Se vores folder om atomvåben - 31/8 - 2017

Forbud mod atomvåben vedtaget i FN
d. 7/7 - 2017

Traktat om forbud mod Atomvåben


FN's nyhedsformidling om afstemningen:

UN Daily News d. 7/7 - 2017

Treaty adopted on 7th July 2017
United Nations Conference to Negotiate a Legally Binding Instrument to Prohibit Nuclear Weapons, Leading Towards their Total Elimination

FN d. 7/7 - 2017

Background information

Treaty adopted on 7th July 2017
United Nations Conference to Negotiate a Legally Binding Instrument to Prohibit Nuclear Weapons, Leading Towards their Total Elimination
Background information

By resolution 71/258, the General Assembly decided to convene in 2017 a United Nations conference to negotiate a legally binding instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons, leading towards their total elimination. The Assembly encouraged all Member States to participate in the Conference and decided that it shall convene in New York, under the rules of procedure of the General Assembly unless otherwise agreed by the Conference, with the participation and contribution of international organizations and civil society representatives. The Conference will be held in New York from 27 to 31 March and from 15 June to 7 July. The Conference held a one-day organizational session in New York on 16 February 2017.

The decision to convene the Conference followed from the recommendation of the open-ended working group on taking forward multilateral disarmament negotiations, convened pursuant to resolution 70/33. The open-ended working group, chaired by Ambassador Thani Thongphakdi (Thailand), specified in its report that a legally binding instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons would establish general prohibitions and obligations as well as a political commitment to achieve and maintain a nuclear-weapon-free world. The primary mandate of the open-ended working group was to address concrete effective legal measures, legal provisions and norms that would need to be concluded to attain and maintain a world without nuclear weapons.

Se FN's side om dette


Global traktat om forbud mod atomvåben er blevet vedtaget i FN

Politikken d. 7/7 - 2017

Diplomat: Verden har ventet på denne juridiske norm i 70 år - siden de første atombomber blev anvendt i Japan.

En global traktat om et forbud mod atomvåben blev fredag vedtaget i FN trods modstand fra USA og andre atommagter, som boykottede forhandlingerne.

Elayne Whyte Gome, der leder den FN-konference, hvor traktaten er blevet forhandlet, siger, at det er den første multilaterale aftale om et stop for atomvåben i 20 år.

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Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park



Hiroshima Gembaku Dome


Foto: Richard Cassan, The Memorial Cenotaph at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. flicker, link til billede


Foto: Maarten Heerlien, link til bilede på flickr

Peace Flame
The Peace Flame is another monument to the victims of the bomb that destroyed Hiroshima, but it has an additional symbolic purpose. The flame has burned continuously since it was lit in 1964, and will remain lit until all nuclear bombs on the planet are destroyed and the planet is free from the threat of nuclear annihilation.

Foto: Douglas Sprott, Link til billede på flickr

The Children's Peace Monument is also called the "Tower of Thousand Cranes,"

for many thousands of folded paper cranes are offered there all through the year. The origin of the three-legged monument (tower) can be traced back more than five decades. On the twenty-fifth of October 1955, ten years after the end of the war, a first-year student at Nobori-cho Junior High School named Sadako Sasaki died of an A-bomb disease (leukemia) in the Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital. Until the end she was hoping for recovery because of a popular belief which says that "folding a thousand paper cranes will bring good luck." The sudden outbreak of her A-bomb disease and her death gave her classmates a great shock. They realized all the more keenly the horrer of the A-bomb. Because of this her classmartes decided to erect a monument to comfort Sadako's soul and to express their desire for peace. The idea spread and was supported by people all over Japan; this became a large movement so that finally the monument came into being. It was unveiled on Children's Day, May 5, 1958. The sponsor was the "Hiroshima Children and Students Association for the Creation of Peace."

At the top of the 9-meter-high monument there is a bronze statue of a girl stretchinbg her arms up in the air and holding a golden crane, conveying hope for a peaceful future. Two statues, one on the right and one on the left side of the monument symbolize a boy, a girl, and bright hope. A bell, modeled after an ancient bronze bell, hangs inside the tower. It was contributed by Dr .Hideki Yukawa, winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics, who was much moved by the feelings of the boys and girls. A golden crane suspended from the bell creates the sound of a windbell. On the front Earth and in the Heavens" is written in Dr. Yukawa's handwriting. However, the bell and a golden crane are presently exhibited in the first-floor lobby of the east Building of the East Building of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. Directly under the monument, the words "This is our cry. This is our prayer. For building peace in this world," written by a junior high school student, are carved on a black granite block. Students from over 3,100 schools in Japan as well as in England and nine other foreign countries contributed funds for the monument.



On the mainstream media coverage of nuclear war risks and nuclear abolition

By Jan Oberg, TFF PressInfo # 421
d. 30/6 - 2017

You’re probably an avid consumer of news and reports in one or more daily media – local, national or global. You want to be well-informed and say interesting things when you meet friends and colleagues.

And you certainly don’t want to find out that you’ve been taken for a ride by fake news, half-truths, bias or omissions by media that you trusted because you thought you could.

Now ask yourself whether you remember to have seen one or more of these essentially important initiatives and reports recently, all pertaining to nuclear weapons, the risk of nuclear war and advocacy of nuclear abolition…

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Forslag i FN til en juridisk bindende aftale om forbud mod kernevåben

Hent pdf-fil med teksten

Her kan du læse om de enkeltelandes holdning

Åbent samråd med udenrigsministeren om nedrustning af atomvåben

No nation has the power to block the negotiations. The treaty is not subject to approval by the UN Security Council, where five nuclear-armed nations wield a veto - kilde ican International campaign to abolish nuclear weapons

United Nations Conference to Negotiate a Legally Binding Instrument to Prohibit Nuclear Weapons, Leading Towards their Total Elimination 16 February, 27 - 31 March, 15 June - 7 July 2017 klik her og følg udviklingen.

Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombing survivors submit the petition with nearly 3 million signatures to the President of the Conference who was joined by the UN High Representative for Disarmament Affairs.

United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA)

Forenede Nationers Regionale Informationskontor for Vesteuropa.
Her kan du bl.a. læse i FN-pagten om hvilke spørgsmål Plenarforsamlingen og Sikkerhedsårdet tager sig af.

Kapitel IV
Artikel 9.
1. Plenarforsamlingen består af alle medlemmerne af de Forenede Nationer.
2. Hvert medlem har højst fem repræsentanter i plenarforsamlingen.
Funktioner og beføjelser.
Artikel 10.
Plenarforsamlingen kan drøfte alle spørgsmål eller sager inden for nærværende pagts område eller vedrørende ethvert af de ved nærværende pagt hjemlede organers beføjelser og funktioner og kan, med forbehold af bestemmelserne i artikel 12, fremsætte forslag til medlemmerne af de Forenede Nationer, til sikkerhedsrådet eller til begge i alle sådanne spørgsmål eller sager...
Artikel 12.
1. Så længe sikkerhedsrådet med hensyn til en tvist eller situation udøver de funktioner, der er tillagt dette i nærværende pagt, kan plenarforsamlingen ikke fremsætte noget forslag vedrørende den pågældende tvist eller situation, medmindre sikkerhedsrådet anmoder derom.
2. Generalsekretæren skal, med sikkerhedsrådets samtykke, ved hver samling underrette plenarforsamlingen om alle sager vedrørende opretholdelse af mellemfolkelig fred og sikkerhed, som er under behandling i sikkerhedsrådet, og skal ligeledes straks, når sikkerhedsrådet ophører med at behandle sådanne sager, underrette plenarforsamlingen eller hvis denne ikke er samlet, de Forenede Nationers medlemmer.

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Ex-nuke commanders: Talk to North Korea, open NATO-Russia dialogue

Politico, By Bryan Bender d. 28/6 - 2017

An international group of ex-nuclear commanders Wednesday issued the first in a series of recommendations to world leaders to head off the rising threat of a nuclear war — calling on the Trump administration to open direct talks with North Korea, urging the United States, Russia and NATO to immediately establish military-to-military talks, and calling on India and Pakistan to set up a nuclear hotline.

"The Nuclear Crisis Group assesses that the risk of nuclear weapons use, intended or otherwise, is unacceptably high and that all states must take constructive steps to reduce these risks," the former military and diplomatic leaders — from nations as diverse as Russia, China, India, Pakistan, and the United States — write in an 11-page report about what they consider the biggest nuclear flashpoints.

The crisis group was established earlier this year under the auspices of Global Zero, a leading arms control organization that supports the ultimate abolition of nuclear weapons…

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Forbyd atomvåben

Arbejderen d. 24/5 - 2017

Det første udkast til en historisk FN-traktat, der helt forbyder atomvåben, så dagens lys i mandags. 123 lande ud af FN's 193 medlemslande har siden marts forhandlet om at afskaffe disse masseødelæggelsesvåben, der dræber mennesker i flæng. Forhandlingerne skal slutte 7. juli.

Danmarks regering boykotter disse forhandlinger, selvom Danmark har underskrevet NPT-traktaten om ikke-spredning af atomvåben. Der er heldigvis to tredjedeles flertal for aftalen i FN's Generalforsamling, og aftalen vil være et vigtigt skridt i retning af endelig at afskaffe atomvåben.

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Danmark, Norge og Island stemte nej til et historisk forsøg på at afskaffe atomvåben.

Det skete i sidste uge i FNs komite for nedrustning og international sikkerhed i New York.
Resolutionen indebærer, at der afholdes en konference i marts måned med det formål at forhandle en juridisk bindende aftale om et globalt forbud mod kernevåben på plads.
Jeg er chokeret, dybt chokeret og kan ikke tro mine egne øren. Jeg troede, det var en selvfølge at enhver dansk regering vil støtte ethvert initiativ for at fremme en atomnedrustning. Det ligger udenfor min fantasi at forestille sig, at der er flertal for en sådan holdning i Folketinget
Det er ganske uforståeligt, at regeringen har stemt imod FN-resolutionen, der er særdeles skelsættende. Den signalerer et stort og positivt skifte i mange års dødvande i aktiviteterne for atomnedrustning.
Danmark må være i forreste række i denne indsats, ikke mindst som en naturlig fortsættelse af skiftende regeringers tilslutning til kravet om Norden som atomvåbenfri zone. Danmark har ingen interesser i at opretholde den eksisterende atomtrussel.
Holdningen i FN er den diamentral modsatte af den alle danske partier, på nær Dansk Folkeparti, gav udtryk for, da de i EU-parlamentet næsten samtidig stemte om en resolution om atomnedrustning.
Jeg vil omgående bede den danske udenrigsminister forklare sig i Folketingets Udenrigsudvalg.
Ifølge Sammenslutningen af Amerikanske Videnskabsmænd (FAS) findes der i dag omkring 15.000 atomsprænghoveder på verdensplan.
38 lande stemte nej til FN-resolutionen om at arbejde for at forbyde atomvåben:
Albanien, Andora, Belgien, Bosnien, Bulgarien, Canada, Danmark, Estland, Frankrig, Grækenland, Island,Israel, Italien, Japan, Kroatien, Letland, Litauen, Luxembourg, Mikronesien, Monaco, Montenegro, Norge, Polen, Portugal, Rumænien, Rusland, Storbritannien, Serbien, Slovakiet, Slovenien, Spanien, Sydkorea, Tjekkiet, Tyrkiet, Tyskland, Ungarn og USA.
123 lande stemte for. 16 undlod at stemme.

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Chriatian Juhl


Regeringen bag dansk atomskandale

Arbejdere d. 30/3 - 2017

Det er en skandale, at den danske regering boykotter den igangværende debat i FN's Generalforsamling om muligheden for at forbyde atomvåben. Og det er for ringe, at oppositionen, som har et komfortabelt flertal i Folketinget, ikke har pålagt regeringen, at deltage.

Der skal ikke meget kendskab til international jura for at nå den åbenlyse konklusion, at Danmark – og de andre lande, der med USA i spidsen boykotter disse møder i FN – handler i strid med NPT-traktaten om ikke-spredning af atomvåben. For i NPT-traktatens artikel VI står det sort på hvidt, at: "Enhver deltager i denne traktat forpligter sig til i god tro at fortsætte forhandlingerne om effektive foranstaltninger til en snarlig standsning af kernevåbenkapløbet og til kernevåbennedrustning"...

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Bekendtgørelse af traktat af 1. juli 1968 om ikke-spredning af kernevåben.



Jan Øberg om USA's nye atomvåben strategi.

Politikere og medier savner aabenbart enhver ekspertise om missilskjoldet til at modstaa Washingtons salgsteknikker

Jan Øberg d. 21/3 - 2015

Åbent brev sendt til 2200 mennesker i Norden herunder 325 danske medieadresser.

Af Jan Øberg
Dr.hc., forskningschef TFF
21. marts 2015

Missilskjoldet tjener til at gøre det muligt at udkæmpe og vinde en atomkrig – ikke at afskrække fra den

Den russiske ambassadørs artikel i Jyllands-Posten kan maaske siges at være bombastisk formuleret men i grunden har han – og ikke udenrigsminister Lidegaard – ret.

Ledende medier som f.eks. Danmarks Radio, Ritzaus og Politiken giver baggrund til missilforsvaret som vidner om total mangel paa fagkundskab om strategi og atomdoktriner.

I stærk kontrast til hvad vi hører om missilskjoldet – som Danmark nu tilsyneladende skal bidrage til – er det det mest de-stabiliserende indslag i atompolitikken siden 1945.

Det kan kun opfattes af Rusland og andre som en provokation.

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UN nuke review conference could mark
turning point

The 2015 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference

A month-long nuclear arms control conference ended in discord May 22nd at the United Nations in New York, but it might likely be remembered as the global gathering at which the majority of the world’s nations unequivocally rejected nuclear weapons.

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Look at nuclear weapons in new ways!

TFF PressInfo # 333 d. 6/8 - 2015

By Jan Oberg

It’s absolutely necessary to remember what happened 70 years ago in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, see the movies from then, listen to the survivors, the hibakusa. But it isn’t enough for us to rid the world of these crimes-against-humanity weapons. And that we must.

Hiroshima and Nagasaki is history and it is also the essence of the age you and I live in – the nuclear age. If the hypothesis is that by showing these films, we create opinion against nuclear weapons, 70 years of every more nuclearism should be enough to conclude that that hypothesis is plain wrong.

There is a need for a frontal attack on not only the weapons but on the nuclearism – the thinking/ideology on which they are based and made to look ‘necessary’ for security and peace.

Nuclear weapons – only for terrorists

At its core, terrorism is about harming or killing innocent people and not only combatants. Any country that possesses nukes is aware that nukes can’t be used without killing millions of innocent people – infinitely more lethal than Al-Qaeda, ISIS etc. Since 9/11 governments and media have conveniently promoted the idea that terrorism is only about small non-governmental groups and thus tried to make us forget that the nuclear ‘haves’ themselves practise state terrorism and hold the humanity hostage to potential civilizational genocide (omnicide).

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Atomvåbenfri Verden

Austria, backed by 159 nations, calls for ban on nuclear weapons

Reuters d. 29/4 - 2015

UNITED NATIONS | By Louis Charbonneau

...Austria on Tuesday called for banning nuclear weapons because of their catastrophic humanitarian effects, an initiative it said now has the backing of 159 countries...

red.: 159 lande ud af 191 støttede forslaget, men lande med atomvåben og NATO-landene ville ikke støtte forslaget.

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Greater U.S. & Russian Cooperation and Leadership Is Necessary to Fulfill NPT

UN May 1, 2015

Article VI Obligations to Reduce and Eliminate Nuclear Dangers
Statement to the 2015 NPT Review Conference

…This review conference and the key states with nuclear weapons must recognize that
the world is on the cusp of unconstrained strategic nuclear competition, which would not
only deepen the distrust and increase dangers, but also would undermine the NPT.
States parties must also recognize that despite the modest progress achieved through
New START, the threat of nuclear war between the major nuclear powers is still with us and would have catastrophic global impacts…

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On April 24th,
The Marshall Islands filed landmark cases in the International Court of Justice and U.S. Federal District Court.

The Claim:

The nine nuclear-armed nations have failed to comply with their obligations, under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty and customary international law, to pursue negotiations for the worldwide elimination of nuclear weapons.
They act for the seven billion of us who live on this planet to end the nuclear weapons threat hanging over all humanity.

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For a nuclear weapons convention and a nuclear-free world by 2020.

Støt underskriftsindsamling fra Mayors for Peace


2015 NPT Review Conference
Background information

The 2015 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) will be held from 27 April to 22 May 2015 at UN Headquarters in New York. The President-designate of the Review Conference is Ambassador Taous Feroukhi from Algeria.

The NPT is a landmark international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. The NPT represents the only binding commitment in a multilateral treaty to the goal of disarmament by the nuclear-weapon States...

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Final Documents of the 2010 NPT Review Conference

Final Document - Volume I (NPT/CONF.2010/50 (Vol. I))
Part I — Review of the operation of the Treaty, as provided for in its article VIII (3), taking into account the decisions and the resolution adopted by the 1995 Review and Extension Conference and the Final Document of the 2000 Review Conference — Conclusions and recommendations for follow-on actions

Klik her


Russia will insist on creating nuclear weapon free zone in Middle East at NPT Conference

TASS 17/04/2015

Russia will insist on establishing a nuclear weapon free zone in the Middle East at the NPT (Non-Proliferation Treaty) Review Conference in New York, head of the Department for non-proliferation and weapons control at the Russian Foreign Ministry Mikhail Ulyanov said on Friday.

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Could Iran be the start?

Erika Simpson, Special to Postmedia Network D. 17/4 - 2015

…In the nuclear non-proliferation treaty, one fatal flaw is the quid pro quo deal in which the nuclear haves agreed to provide uranium and nuclear energy to the have-nots, which would continue to be non-nuclear, and in exchange the haves promised to get rid of their nuclear arsenals and move toward general disarmament. Fifty years ago, diplomats should have foreseen the problems with such discriminatory arrangements…

…All the proliferators that refuse to sign the non-proliferation treaty and accept the strictest safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency — like Israel, India, North Korea and Pakistan — must be sanctioned, not just Iran…

…The good news is there are many regional nuclear-weapon-free treaties around the world, covering large swaths of Central and Latin America, Southeast Asia, Africa and Central Asia. Each commits the states not to deploy, construct, receive or test nuclear weapons on its territory. Already 113 nations — a majority of UN members — have signed or ratified these treaties, and 50% of the world’s land area is governed by them…

…Erika Simpson was a speaker at the World Uranium Symposium and will be a speaker at the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty review conference. She is an associate professor of international relations at Western University and the author of the book NATO and the Bomb…

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Vi har modtaget:

Forbyd atomvåben

6. og 9. August var 70 års dagen for, at USA sprængte sine 2 atombomber over Hiroshima og Nagasaki i Japan.
I maj i år afsluttede FN i New York konferencen traktaten om om ikke-spredning af atomvåben. Det er den eneste bindende aftale om ikke-spredning og atomnedrustning. Aftalen er fra 1970. I 2003 meldte Indien, Pakistan, Israel og Nordkorea sig ud af aftalen.
Der findes i øjeblikket 16.000 atomvåben i verden.
I løbet af den 4 uger lange konference har et stort flertal af lande og en række humanitære organisationer udtrykt utilfredshed med at atomvåbenlandene ikke vil forpligte sig til at tage konkrete skridt for atomnedrustning.
Det er skuffende, at det ikke kan ske.
Men det er opmuntrende, at der trods alt er 100 lande, som tilslutter sig et løfte om at arbejde for at forbyde atomvåben, igangsat af International Campaign for Abolition of Nuclear Weapons (ICAN).
Det er trist at Danmark ikke er med i denne store gruppe af lande. Den danske regeringen føler sig mere forpligtet til at gå i takt NATO end at stille sig klart bag et krav om at afskaffe atomvåben.
Det er svært at se, hvordan man vil arbejde for at afskaffe atomvåben uden først at etablere et forbud mod denne dødsensfarlige våbentype.
NATO-landene, og herunder Danmark, støtter i ord målet om an verden fri for atomvåben, men så længe den slags våben findes, vil atomvåben være en del af NATOs sikkerhedsgaranti.
Den danske regering må sætte sig i spidsten for en global indsats for forbud mod atomvåben, i stedet for alene at traske i NATOs fodspor. Der er ingen modsætning mellem at være tilsluttet NATO og tage selvstændige initiativer.
Desuden bør regeringen være drivende kraft i at sikre en konference om Mellemøsten uden masseødelæggelsesvåben.
Med de mange kriser rundt i verden er det mere nødvendigt end nogensinde brug for et forbud mod atomvåben.

Christian Juhl



Abolition of nuclear weapons by 2020,

The 8th General Conference of Mayors for Peace

From August 3 (Sat.) to Augus t 6 (Tue.), 2013, the quadrennial General Conference was successfully held in Hiroshima city. At the 8 th General Conference this time, lively discussions were made on concrete measures toward the abolition of nuclear weapons by 2020, with 305 participants
in total from 157 cities and municipalities in 18 countries, as well as governments and NGO representatives under the Keynote Theme of ‘Toward a World without Nuclear Weapons
Conveying the “Spirit of Hiroshima and
Nagasaki” to the World

Reports of the 8th General Conference of Mayors for Peace are available at our website


Global Action to Wave Goodbye to Nukes!

Governments will meet at the United Nations over four weeks in April-May 2015 for the five-yearly review of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Civil society is calling on governments to end the threat of nuclear weapons by negotiating for their complete prohibition and elimination - a requirement of the NPT.

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Assuring destruction forever

Reaching Critical Will has released its latest updated study exploring the ongoing and planned nuclear weapon modernisation programmes in China, France, India, Israel, Pakistan, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

As of April 2015, the nuclear-armed states are estimated to possess approximately 15,650 nuclear weapons. All of them have plans to modernise—upgrade and / or extend the lives of—their nuclear weapons. In Assuring destruction forever: 2015 edition, non-governmental researchers and analysts provide information on each country’s modernisation plans.

“Modernisation is driven largely by the quest for military advantage,” argue the report editor and two of its authors in the introduction. It “refreshes the perceived utility and credibility of nuclear use, both technically and politically,” and is also a “legitimacy-making exercise. The greater the investment and sacrifices necessary, the greater the perceived legitimacy of nuclear weapons in national policies.”

The overwhelming majority of states have rejected nuclear weapons. They do not see them as instruments of security but rather of mutual destruction. Yet unlike the other weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons have not been categorically banned. Now is the time to address this anomaly, which has been allowed to persist for far too long.

Download full report


The Marshall Islands' Nuclear Zero Cases
in the International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice in The Hague


Photo credit: WikiCommons

On April 24, 2014, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) filed applications in the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to hold the nine nuclear-armed states accountable for violations of international law with respect to their nuclear disarmament obligations under the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and customary international law. The nine states possessing nuclear arsenals are the United States, United Kingdom, France, Russia, China, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Israel.

The cases are founded on the unanimous conclusion of the ICJ in a 1996 advisory opinion, that there “exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leadings to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control.”

The relief requested is a declaratory judgment of breach of obligations relating to nuclear disarmament and an order to take, within one year of the judgment, all steps necessary to comply with those obligations, including the pursuit, by initiation if necessary, of negotiations in good faith aimed at the conclusion of a convention on nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control.

The International Legal Team is headed by the two Co-Agents of RMI: Tony de Brum, Former Foreign Minister, Republic of Marshall Islands, and Phon van den Biesen, an Amsterdam-based lawyer and longtime member of IALANA. Other members of the team (full list here) include John Burroughs, LCNP Executive Director, Peter Weiss, LCNP President Emeritus and IALANA Co-President, and Roger Clark, professor at Rutgers Law School and a member of the LCNP Consultative Council. In a companion case against the United States in U.S. federal court in the Northern District of California, the RMI is represented by the U.S. law firm Keller Rohrback.

Ovenstående er klip fra International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms (IALANA) om dette

sagsforløbet og domstolen svar



Stormagter lover at skrotte atomvåben

Berlingske d. 24/9 - 2009

Obama og ledere fra andre atommagter pålægger sig selv at stile mod en verden helt fri for atomvåben. Det sker i en bindende FN-resolution.

FN's Sikkerhedsråd godkender på et historisk møde en bindende resolution, der opfordrer alle atommagter til at skrotte deres arsenal.

Vedtagelsen af det amerikanske forslag er enstemmig.

Mødet blev ledet af USA's præsident, Barack Obama, og de øvrige 14 medlemmer var ligeledes repræsenteret af deres stats- eller regeringschef, hvilket er yderst sjældent.

I resolutionen forpligter stormagter sig også til at hindre spredningen af atomvåben.

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Ingeniøren 5/12 - 2008

Af Jens Ramskov

...I USA har visse kredse argumenteret for, at USA kunne ødelægge Rusland i et overraskelsesangreb, som ikke ville give russerne mulighed for at svare igen. Men et sådant ensidigt angreb vil alene tilføre atmosfæren 85 teragram sod og føre til massehungersnød over hele Jorden. Det er en selvmordsstrategi, mener Toon, Turco og Robock. Selv en begrænset regionalkonflikt, der 'kun' vil tilføre atmosfæren 5 teragram vil give jordkloden en lavere temperatur, end der har været i 1.000 år. Sodmængden vil langt overgå, hvad der blev udsendt ved udbrud af vulkanen Tambora i Indonesien i 1815, som bevirkede, at 1816 i Europa og USA er kendt som året uden sommer...

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Nuclear-weapon-free zone

Se Wikipedia

CELAC, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States har i Latinamerika:

Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) Klik her

African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty: report of the First Committee (A/69/432)


Atomvåben tidligere artikler

Læs om ikke spredsningskonferece 2005
Det belgiske parlament ønsker fjernelse af amerikanske atomvåben i Europa
Tal om atomvåben
Stanislav  Petrov redede verden fra en atomkrig.
The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP
Atomkrigen rykker nærmere
Spredning af atomvåben

Brændt ved malm, af Brenda Norell.

Borgmestre for fred
Læs om the Middle Powers Initiative (MPI) til fjernelse af atomvåben.

Chancerne for nedrustning af atomvåben er blevet meget mindre

Sipris årbøger

Nedrustningsaftale mellem USA og Rusland

Citat fra FN's nedrustningskommissions og hele rapporten

Kort historisk oversigt

Historiske billeder


Ikke Spredningskonferencen 2005

Det er vanskelige tider for "Ikke Spredningsaftalen"

Se politisk analyse af revisionskonferencen, læs om den dybe uenighed landene imellem.

oversættelse af Ingeborg Roed Hansen for Esbjerg Fredsbevægelse 


Repræsentanternes hus i det belgiske parlament ønsker fjernelse af amerikanske atomvåben i Europa.

Repræsentanternes hus i det belgiske parlament har vedtaget en resolution om nedrustning og ikkespredning af atomvåben, der kræver fjernelse af de amerikanske atomvåben, der er opstillet på europæisk jord. Man beder også om, at atomvåben holdes ude af EU’s fælles sikkerhedspolitik. Dette er anden gang, en parlamentarisk forsamling i Europa har krævet fjernelse af amerikanske atomvåben. Det belgiske senat vedtog en lignende resolution den 21. april 2005 lige forud for FN’s revisionskonference om ikkespredningstraktaten (NPT) i New York, som blev en fiasko. Det formodes, at ca. 480 taktiske amerikanske atomvåben er placeret i Belgien, Tyskland, England, Italien, Holland og Tyrkiet. Amerika er i øjeblikket det eneste land, der har atomvåben opstillet på andre landes territorier.

Repræsentanternes hus i det belgiske parlament vedtog resolutionen lige forud for 60-årsdagen for ”Trinity” – den første atombombe, der blev prøvesprængt i ”Jornada del Muerto”-dalen i New Mexico den 16. juli 1945. Siden hen er 2.053 atomvåben blevet detoneret – eller i gennemsnit et hver tiende dag siden 1945.

Pol D’Huyvetter, som er talsmand for ”Mother Earth”, en medlemsgruppe af ”Friends of the Earth International”, meddelte: Denne resolution er en meget god nyhed for de mange mennesker, der har deltaget i vor nedrustningskampagne i mange år. Resolutionen vil hjælpe med til at overbevise vor regering om, at de er nødt til at nedlægge NATO’s atombase ved Kleine Brogel. Denne atombase er en mørk plet på verdenskortet, da basen har kapacitet til at opbevare indtil 20 amerikanske B61-atombomber, som hver især har en sprængkraft, der er 14 gange mere dødbringende end Hiroshima-bomben. Vi har brug for en global traktat, der forbyder disse udryddelsesvåben så hurtigt som muligt. Desværre møder en sådan traktat kraftig modstand fra USA. Men selv uden USA arbejder vi videre, som vi beviser igen i dag, ligesom vi gør med Den Internationale Straffedomstol, Landminetraktaten eller Kyoto-protokollen. En dag bliver de nødt til at rette sig efter det globale krav om en atomvåbenfri verden.

Resolutionsteksten findes på fransk og hollandsk på dette link.

Kilde: D’Huyvetter, Pol, For Mother Earth Press Release, 15 July 2005.

Oversat af Ingeborg Roed Hansen/13.08.05/
Esbjerg Fredsbevægelse


Tal om atomvåben - august 2005

- Der er 30-40,000 atomvåben i verden idag.
- 95% af dem befinder sig i Rusland og USA.
- Flere konfliktramte regioner har dem, heriblandt Israel med 100-200.
- 44 lande har adgang til fissilt materiale og den teknologi hvorved man kan
fremstille disse våben.
- 4,500 springhoveder er i højeste beredskab og klar til at blive affyret på få
- Der er mere end 3,000,000 kilo højt beriget uran og plutonium i verden.
- Der er mere end 400 amerikanske atomvåben i Europa.
- Siden 1980 har der været 32 falske alarmer og fejlfunktioner, der involverede
amerikanske atomvåben.
- Mellem 1940 og 1998 har USA brugt 5.7 milliarder (5,700,000,000) dollars
på atomvåben.
- USA bruger i øjeblikket 100 millioner dollars på atomvåben om dagen


Stanislav  Petrov redede verden fra en atomkrig.

MOSCOW. May 21
(Interfax) - Retired Russian Lt. Col. Stanislav  Petrov was presented with the World Citizen Award by the Association of World Citizens on Friday. While was on duty in the Missile Attack Early Warning command post in September 1983,
Petrov recognized that the automatic system signaling the launch of U.S. intercontinental ballistic missiles at the USSR was faulty.           "Had Petrov relied on the system and passed on the missile attack warning, a Soviet retaliatory strike would have become inevitable and entailed
a universal nuclear disaster. This is what           the founders of the think of what he did," an official in the Russian branch of the association told Interfax. Petrov's action became widely known, in particular in the West, following the publication of memoirs written by Col. Gen. Yury    Votintsev, former commander of the Soviet Air Defense's Missile Defense Units, the official said.   The Association of World Citizens, an international peace and justice organization, headquartered in San Francisco, CA, was founded in 1975. It has
branches in 50 countries. Its president is           Douglas Mattern. 

The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP).

BACKGROUND: Since the end of the Cold War, some civilian military planners and nuclear scientists have promoted the creation of a new class of earth-penetrating nuclear weapons. These weapons are sometimes referred to as "bunker-busters" because they would be designed to burrow into the ground to destroy underground military facilities that are protected by 100 to 300 feet of reinforced concrete or rock. The Energy Department’s budget includes $27.6 million for the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP). The RNEP would use an existing nuclear weapon, redesigned for use against underground bunkers. It would have explosive power up to 70 times that of the bomb that destroyed Hiroshima.

RNEP proponents claim that, because the weapon penetrates the earth before detonating, it would be a "clean" nuclear weapon. In reality, this would be an extremely deadly weapon. If detonated in an urban setting, tens of thousands of people could receive a fatal dose of radiation within the first 24 hours. More would be killed or injured by the extreme pressures of the blast and thermal injuries arising from the heat of the explosion. Still more casualties would result from the resulting fires and the collapse of buildings from the seismic shock that the explosion would produce. According to Sen. Jack Reed (RI), Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrators, "are really city breakers, not bunker busters."

The Bush Administration has repeatedly claimed that the RNEP program is a study and nothing more. However, the Administration’s intentions regarding RNEP go well beyond their initial claims. Energy Department budget documents show funding demands for RNEP increasing dramatically after this year, despite congressional restrictions on further development of this program. The initial three-year study was to cost $45 million, but the Administration’s proposed spending in the next five years would total nearly $500 million and move RNEP into early development and engineering stages.

The Bush Administration is leading the world down the wrong path. Instead of adhering to our obligations under the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) by reducing reliance on the most horrific weapons ever created and working for global disarmament, the Administration is seeking new uses for nuclear weapons. Adopting such a nuclear posture is a step backward and a virtual invitation for other nations to opt out of their NPT obligations as well.


Atomkrigen rykker nærmere

Og den har aldrig været tættere på, hvis vi ikke hurtigt får nogle effektive kontrolsystemer.

IAEA-Chef Baradei zum SPIEGEL: "Ich habe Angst davor, dass Atomwaffen in die Hände von Diktatoren oder Terroristen fallen."

Kilde der Spigel

The IAEA is the world's center of cooperation in the nuclear field. It was set up as the world's "Atoms for Peace" organization in 1957 within the United Nations family. The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies.


Spredningen af atomvåben:

USA smed atombomben over Hiroshima and Nagasaki i de sidste dage af 2. verdenskrig. Sovjetunionen frembragte succesfulde test 1949.
Storbritanien i 1952
Frankrig i 1960
Kina i 1964
Ikkespredsningstraktaten trådte i kraft marts 1970, The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
August 2003 er den underskrevet af 188 nationer.

Brændt ved malm, af Brenda Norell.

Cudei, New Mexico-Gilbert Badoni husker hvordan Navajos uran minearbejdere tog deres vandflasker ind i minen og fyldte dem med radioaktivt vand til deres koner for at forberede en formel til deres babyer.

”USA's regering vidste allerede at arbejde i uran minerne ville dræbe Navajoerne, men regeringen slap godt fra det,”sagde Badoni, mellem Navajos organiserede modstand til fjernelse af uran minearbejde på Navajo nationen.

Som barn , levede Badoni med hans familie i en sommerskygge hus i det vestlige Colorados uran mine lejr,hvor Navajoerne blev brugt som forsøgskaniner i den kolde krig.

Badonis far,Harry Badoni døde af kræft efter at have arbejdet i en uran mine ved Slit Rock,Colorado.Nu, Gilberts mor , søster og to brødre som lever i lejren har fået kræft.Gilbert har en lungesygdom.

”Selvfølgelig brugte de os som forsøgskaniner, som en slags national forsvar,”sagde Gilbert Badoni de Navajo mænd som arbejdede i uran minerne havde ikke sikkerhedstøj eller masker til at holde det radioaktive støv ude fra deres lunger.

Badoni husker legen på løbevejen,med vand som vaskede over radioaktivt slam i den tilsølede mine lejr.

Manuel Pino,Acoma Pueblo og professer ved Scottsdale fælles kollegium i Arizona, har kæmpet for retfærdighed i 25 år for uran minearbejderne ved Acoma og Laguna Pueblos.

Under en nylig konference mod uran minearbejde i Shiprock , New Mexico,organiseret af Navajos græsrødder,Pino citerede den seneste Fred Johnson,Navajos byrådsmedlem fra Shiprock,N.M,som døde på mystisk vis i et flystyrt.

”Grundbegrebet-at ødelægge landet-er at ødelægge menneskene.”

Pino havde taget hans besked med til FN, afsløret at indfødte mennesker var blevet brugt som menneskelige forsøgskaniner,som koldkrigs eksperimenter uden hensyntagen til menneskeliv.

Efterladende et følge af død og sygdom,Pino sagde at grupper af kræft er fundet i befolkningsgrupper i Denne i Canada og Dineh(Navajo)og Pueblo i USA.

Indianske nationer har længe været mål til brug for våbenproduktion.Pino siger at den første atombombe brugte uran fra Denne i Canada.Det var testet indenfor 60 mil fra Mescalero Apache reservatet i New Mexiko og var bygget på Pueblo land.Nu ønsker de at opbevare det på det vestlige Shoshone land i Nevada, sagde han.

I det sydvestlige USA, var der omkring 15000 minearbejdere og omtrent en fjerdedel var indfødte amerikanere , som arbejdede for USA's(Vanadium Corporation)stålværk,en hjæper til Union Carbide,(karbid forbund)Kerr-McGee og andre.

Helbredsrisikoen var kendt så tidligt som i 1949 og det blev aldrig fortalt til Navajoerne, i overenstemmelse med ”Hvis du forgifter os: Uran og indfødte amerikanere,”af Peter H. Eichstaedt.

Badoni siger det forarmede uran som bliver brugt i Mellemøsten er en gentagelse af bedraget af Navajoerne, og misbrug af uskyldige.

Det er en sti som leder til kræft og død.

Når Kerr McGee og andre begyndte minearbejde i de fire hjørners region,var Navajoerne uvidende om helbredsfaren og desperate for at få jobs for at overleve.”På det tidspunkt var det kun overlevelse, vi vidste ikke bedre,”sagde Badoni.

”Den kedelige del er at regeringen vidste hele tiden at det ville ødelægge menneskelige nationer.Men de graver det stadig op for våben.Men du blander dig ikke med moder natur.Du takker kun moder natur for hvad hun tillader du må.”

Nu kender Navajoerne ord som silikose (stenhuggerlunge)og fibrose(bindevævssvulst)

Det gør deres slægtninge i nord også,Denerne i Canada,som bar ”pengestenen”på deres rygge, mærket af dødsmarchen ,en langsom optog til deres grave.

I de nordvestlige territorier, Denerne bar på 100 punds malm sække på ryggen .Cindy Kenny –Gilday,datter af en af Denes malm bærere, sagde Navajos byer i sydvest,er nu byer af enker,”

Kenny-Gilday sagde at denerne havde en profet ,som for lang tid siden advarede menneskene imod den magt af dette stof.”Under denne sten er energien så stærk at ingen mand kan overleve det,”fortalte han til menneskene.

Da en Denne mand ved navn Beyonnie fandt en sort sten øst for Great Bear Lake(store bjørne sø)i 1930erne ,var han belønnet med tasker af mel ,bagepulver og spække af en hvid pelsjæger.Den canadiske krone oprettede Eldorado minen og dumpede uranium sten affald og avner ned i vandet ved søen hvor Denerne fiskede og som var ders kød udsprings(kilde),kaldet caribou udspring.

Kenny –Gilday sagde at minen hyrede alle raske Denne mænd til at bære malm taskerne til prammen for 5§ dollar om dagen.Familier tog med deres mænd og fædre og inhalerede støvet,indsugede det radioaktive affald.

Huskende 12 timers dages af opslidende arbejde,84 årige Dener og malm bærer Paul Baton sagde ,”støvet dækkede dig som mel, det dækkede tøjet, vores hoveder og hænder.Vi ville sove på sækkene.Ingen fortalte os noget om at det var farligt,Ingen fortalte os om kræft.”

Skønt hvide minearbejdere ved Eldorado minen bar beskyttelsestøj og fik besked på at gå i brusebad for at skylle uran støvet af efter hvert skift, indfødte arbejdsmænd henføres til at være ”kulier,”var aldrig blevet fortalt om faren.

Kenny-Ggilday sagde ,”De fortalte det aldrig til Denerne.Regeringen vidste at støvet fra malmen ville dræbe denerne”I halvfjerdserne, begyndte mændene at dø af forskellige former for kræft.

Det var første gang at menneskene ved Great Bear Lake, nogensinde havde hørt om kræft,”sagde Kenny-Gilday i et tidligere interview under et besøg ved Laguna Pueblo i New Mexico.

”Hvor mange malm bærere døde ?”Den eneste måde at vide det på er at tælle gravene,”sagde hun.

Udækkede Denne dokumenter afslørede at det canadiske sundhedsministerium vidste besked om risikoen og fejlede og ikke informerede indfødte arbejdere. Imedens at hun foretog undersøgelser i Ottawa, sagde Kenny –Gilday at beviserne var blevet destrueret.”Masser af dokumentationer var strimlet/slettet.”Hun vendte hjem for at fortælle historien om enkerne.

”Nu, der er kun fem overlevende.”Denerne fra Great Bear Lake var aldrig blevet fortalt at de transporterede hemmelige våben-uran-som USA ville bruge til at producere den første atom- bombe. 




Borgmestre for Fred

Borgmestre der samarbejder verden over for afskaffelse af atomvåben. De samarbejde også om andre spørgsmål som truer fredelig sameksistens: sult, fattigdom, flygtninge, menneskerettigheder og forurening.
Se deres hjemmeside.
Danmark er et af de meget få lande i Europa der ikke har nogle byer som medlem.

Vi fik brev fra Borgmestre for Fred (de har deres kontor i Hiroshima). 
Når man ser på kortet over Europa, ser det ikke godt ud for danmark. Vi har ingen byer tilsluttet. Det synes vi er uheldigt - det må der gøres noget ved. På disse websider kan du se Member Cities - i Danmark er 13 byer medlem.
I brevet fortæller de videre at ikkespredsnings- traktaten NPT, The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, er ved at bryde sammen da USA har tilkendegivet at de vil bruge atomvåben som første slags våben, samt at de vil fremstille mindre "brugbare" atomvåben. Disse tiltag er klart i modstrid med NPT. Nord Korea har trukket sig ud af NPT, og Indien, Parkistan og Israel nægter at underskrive NPT. 
Borgmestre for fred besluttede på deres konference 18. oktober 2003 at starte en kampagne mod atomvåben og med focus på NPT. De satser på at samle mange NGOére til NPT Review Conferencen i New York 2005, 60 år efter atombombningen.
Og starte en forhandling i FN for komplet udrydelse af atomvåben 2020.

Læs oversættelse af Invitation til Borgmestre for Freds sjette generelle konference til minde om 60-årsdagen for atombombningerne af Hiroshima og Nagasaki

Læs om the Middle Powers Initiative (MPI) til fjernelse af atomvåben.

På dette websted  kan du læse om initiativet:
Den danske regering er ikke med i initiativet, så her er noget vi må arbejde på.
Se her hvem der er med:
Esbjerg Fredsbevægelse er med gennem International Peace Bureau

Chancerne for nedrustning af atomvåben er blevet meget mindre. 

Poul Eck Sørensen

USA vil ikke underskrive prøvestopaftalen og de vil til at udvikle nye mindre atomvåben. 

Dermed er der fare for skrotning af Ikke spredningsaftalen, som jo bygger på, at de lande der ikke har atomvåben er garanterede, at de lande, der har atomvåben, nedruster. 

Envidere kan missilforsvaret få Kina til at føle sig truet af USA-missilforsvar. Derfor kan man forestille sig, at de ser sig nødsaget til at opruste med atomvåben. Dette kan bevirke at Indien føler sig truet og opruster, og dette kan igen få Parkistan til at opruste. 

Ser det ud til at missilskjoldet bliver en realitet kan det måske også påvirke vurderingen i Rusland. 

Hermed er grunden lagt til opsigelse af Ikke spredningsaftalen, prøvesprængningsaftalen m.m.  og starten på en ny oprustningsbølge.

Men også en militarisering af rummet kan øge atomoprustningen.

Laser våben anbragt i rummet kan bruges til at nedskyde fjentlige missiler, med disse våben kan også bruges som angrebsvåben i rapporten Joint Doctrine for Space Operations fra august 2002, tales der om sådanne angreb. Flere højtstående politikere og militær folk i USA tales også om krig fra rummet.  

Kina arbejder på at få vedtaget en FN-aftale mod våbenkapløb i rummet, men USA er imod, så også her vil USA vælge sin egen vej og ikke FN-vejen, dette kan også bevirke at Kina og andre lande ser ser sig nødsaget til at opruste med atomvåen.

Sipris årbog

SIPRIS årbøger Armament, Disarmament and International Security

Nedrustnings aftale mellem 
USA og Rusland

Vores webside om START III

FN's nedrustningskommissions 
rapport 2003


"The attainment of the objective of security, 
which is an inseparable element of peace, has 
always been one of the most profound 
aspirations of humanity. States have for a long 
time sought to maintain their security through 
the possession of arms … Yet the accumulation 
of weapons, particularly nuclear weapons, today 
constitutes much more a threat than a protection for the future of mankind."

En del af den kan du se hos os på en webside.

Kort historisk oversigt.

(kilde Mother Earth)

16th July 1945: The United States conducts the world's first nuclear weapon test at Alamogordo, New Mexico

6th and 9th August 1945: The United States drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

1946-58: The United States tests a total of 66 atomic and hydrogen bombs in the Marshall Islands.

29th August 1949: The Soviet Union tests its first atomic bomb

March 1950: The World Peace Council releases the Stockholm Appeal calling for an absolute ban on nuclear weapons.

3rd October 1952: Britain carries out its first atomic bomb test.

12th August 1953: The Soviet Union carries out its first hydrogen bomb test.

August 1955: The first World Conference Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs is held in Hiroshima.

December 1959: The Antarctic Treaty banning the use of Antarctica for any military purposes, including nuclear weapon tests, is concluded.

13th February 1960: France conducts its first nuclear device test.

16th October 1964: China conducts its first atomic bomb test.

January 1967: The Outer Space Treaty is signed to prohibit placement of nuclear weapons in orbit around Earth or on celestial bodies.

February 1967: Latin American countries sign the Treaty of Tlatelolco prohibiting nuclear weapons on the seabed beyond the 12-mile coastal limit over which nations have sovereignty.

July 1968: The nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is signed, prohibiting non-nuclear states from building or acquiring nuclear weapons and obligating nuclear powers to work on arms control and disarmament.

May 1972: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) concluded and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty signed, by US and the Soviet Union.

June 1973: The United States and the Soviet Union sign the Agreement on the Prevention of Nuclear War.

18th May 1974: India conducts its first nuclear test underground.

May 1978: The United Nations General Assembly holds its first special session on disarmament.

June 1979: SALT II treaty signed between US and Soviet Union.

July 1980: The South Pacific island group of Palau adopts the world's first nuclear-free constitution.

June 1982: The U.N. General Assembly holds its second special disarmament session. Anti-nuclear citizens' movements spread around the world.

1985: Mordechai Vanunu reveals details of the secret Israeli nuclear programme.

August 1985: The Treaty of Rarotonga is signed, declaring the South Pacific nuclear-free.

December 1987: The United States and the Soviet Union sign the START I treaty on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms.

February 1992: A declaration by the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) to make the Korean Peninsula nuclear-weapons-free takes effect

March 1992: South African president F.W. de Klerk reveals that his country has dismantled its nuclear weapons.

January 1994: Ukraine signs an agreement with the United States and Russia to give up all the nuclear weapons deployed in the republic by the former Soviet Union.

May 1995: The Non-Proliferation Treaty is extended indefinitely, in large part due to the agreement that a comprehensive test ban treaty would be ready for signature before the end of 1996.

December 1995: The Treaty Bangkok, making Southeast Asia a nuclear-weapon-free-zone, is signed.

April 1996: The Treaty of Pelindaba, making Africa nuclear-weapon-free, is signed.

8th July 1996: The International Court of Justice issues an advisory opinion that "the threat or use of nuclear weapons would generally be contrary to the rules of international law."

August 1996: The Canberra Commission, a panel of global opinion leaders that was established at the initiative of the Australian government, releases a report recommending specific steps for the elimination of nuclear weapons.

September 1996: The U.N. General Assembly adopts the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty.

May 1998: India and Pakistan carry out underground nuclear tests.

October 1999: The U.S. Senate rejects the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), drawing widespread international condemnation.

April 2000: The Duma, Russia's parliament, ratifies the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).

December 2001: The US withdraws from the ABM Treaty.

January 2002: US Nuclear Posture Review makes plans for a new generation of mini-nukes and a possible resumption of nuclear testing.



Amerikanerne ønsker missil forsvarssystemet

Amerikanske atomvåben i Europa

The Official Homepage of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum

HIDANKYO is the only nation-wide organization of A-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Hibakusha). It has member organizations in all 47 Japanese prefectures, thus representing almost all organized Hibakusha.


Historiske billeder: